Danica M. Jerotijević Tišma


The present study aims at comparing the effects of the application of
various carefully selected techniques of the two distinct teaching approaches,
Communicative Language Learning and Kagan’s version of Cooperative
Language Learning, on enhancing young Serbian EFL learners’ pronunciation
of allegedly problematic sounds, such as interdental fricatives /ð/, /θ/ and
approximants /r/ and /w/. In order to answer the proposed research questions
a preliminary quasi-experiment was conducted in which the aforementioned
techniques were applied consistently for three months during the private English
lessons to twelve nine- and ten-year-olds, who have been learning English for
almost four years. The possibilities for the assessment of pronunciation were
further explored by examining the teachers’ views regarding which applied
approach facilitated more appropriate evaluation of the learners’ pronunciation
of target sounds. The findings of pre-test and post-test examinations were
analysed, and the results show positive effects in favour of Kagan’s Structures.
Even though the present study can be regarded as a pilot study due to a
relatively small number of participants, based on the findings of the conducted
investigation, suggestions are provided to teachers for the reintroduction of
the slightly marginalized segment of EFL teaching, i.e. the almost entirely
neglected phonetic instruction.


EFL pronunciation, young learners, communicative, cooperative, assessment

Full Text:

PDF (Cрпски)


BADIAN 1998: Badian, Nathlie. A validation of the role of preschool phonological and orthographic skills in the prediction of reading. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 31 (1998): 472-481.

CASTIGLIONI-SPALTON & EHRI 2003: Castiglioni-Spalton, Maria &

Linnea, Ehri. Phonemic awareness instruction: Contribution of articulatory

segmentation to novice beginners’ reading and writing. Scientific Studies of Reading, 7(1) (2003): 25-52.

CELCE-MURCIA ET AL. 1996: Celce-Murcia, Marianne, Brinton, Donna. &

Jennet, Goodwin. Teaching Pronunciation: a Reference for Teachers of

English to Speakers of Other Languages. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1996.

DERWING & MUNRO 2005: Derwing, Tracey, & Murray, Munro. Second

language accent and pronunciation teaching: A research-based approach.

TESOL Quarterly, 39 (2005): 379-397.

ECKSTEIN 2007: Eckstein, Grant. A correlation of pronunciation learning

strategies with spontaneous English pronunciation of adult ESL learners.

(Unpublished thesis). Brigham Young University, Idaho, Utah, 2007.

FLEGE 1995: Flege, James Emil. Second language speech learning theory,

findings, and problems. In (ed. W. Strange), Speech perception and linguistic experience: Issues in cross-language research (pp. 233-277). Baltimore, MD: York Press, 1995.

FOOTE ET AL. 2011: Foote, Jennifer, Holtby, Amy, & Marianne, Derwing.

Survey of the teaching of pronunciation in adult ESL programs in Canada,

TESL Canada Journal, 29(1) (2011): 1-22.

FRASER 2000: Fraser, Helen. Coordinating improvements in pronunciation

teaching for adult learners English as a second language. Department of

Education, Training and Youth Affairs, Canberra, 2000.

GATBONTON & SEGALOWITZ 2005: Gatbonton, Elizabeth, & Norman,

Segalowitz. Rethinking communicative language teaching: A focus on access to fluency. Canadian Modern Language Review, 61 (2005): 325-353.

GOODWIN 2005: Goodwin, Jennet. The power of context in teaching

pronunciation. In J. Frodesen, C. Holten, & M. Celce-Murcia (Eds.), The

power of context in language teaching and learning (pp. 225-236). Australia: Thomson Heinle, 2005.

GRANT 1995: Grant, Linda. Creating pronunciation-based ESL materials for publication. In P. Byrd (Ed.), Material writer’s guide (pp. 107-123). Boston MA: Heinle & Heinle, 1995.

JACOBS & HALL 1994: Jacobs, George, & Hall, Stephen. Implementing

cooperative learning. English Teaching Forum, [Online], 1994. Available:

http://exchanges.state.gov/forum/vols/vol32/no4/p2.pdf. (Retrieved June 10, 2015).

JONES 2002: Jones, Rodney. Beyond ‘Listen and Repeat’: Pronunciation Teaching Materials and Theories of Second Language Acquisition in Richards, Jack S., Renandya, Willy A. Methodology in Language Teaching: An Anthology of Current Practice. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2002.

KAGAN 1992: Kagan, Spencer. Cooperative Learning. San Juan Capistrano, CA: Kagan Cooperative Learning, 1992.

KELLY 2000: Kelly, Gerald. How to Teach Pronunciation. Harlow: Longman, 2000.

KENNEDY 2008: Kennedy, Sara. Second language learner speech and

intelligibility: Instruction and environment in auniversity setting (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). Montreal, Canada: McGill University, 2008.

KUḈ 2008: Kuç, Albina. Problematic Consonant Sounds for Young Learners at Jale Tezer College. An Unpublished M.A. Thesis, Hacettepe University, the Institute of Social Sciences, 2008.

LEVIS 2005: Levis, John. Changing contexts and shifting paradigms in

pronunciation teaching. TESOL Quarterly, 39 (2005), 369-377.

MUNRO & DERWING 1995: Munro, Murray. & Derwing, Tracey. Foreign

accent, comprehensibility, and intelligibility in the speech of second language learners. Language Learning, 45(1) (1995): 73-97.

MURPHY 2014: Murphy, John. Intelligible, comprehensible, non-native models in ESL/EFL pronunciation teaching. System, 42 (2014), 258-269.

NIXON & TOMLINSON 2005: Nixon, Caroline & Michael, Tomlinson.

Primary Reading Box: Reading Activities and Puzzles for Younger Learners. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2005.

RAJADURAI 2001: Rajadurai, Joanne. An Investigation of the Effectiveness of Teaching Pronunciation to Malaysian TESOL Students. Forum, 39(3) (2001): 10-15.

RICHARS & ROGERS 2001: Richards, Jack. & Rodgers, Theodore. Approaches and methods in language teaching (2nd Ed.). New York. Cambridge University Press, 2001.

WESCHE & SKEHAN 2002: Wesche, Marjorie & Skehan, Peter. Communicative teaching, content-based instruction, and task-based learning, In Handbook of applied linguistics, ed., R. Kaplan, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2002.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2019 PHILOLOGIA MEDIANA

Philologia Mediana

Филозофски факултет Ниш / Faculty of Philosophy Niš

Ћирила и Методија 2 / Ćirila i Metodija 2

18000 Ниш / 18000 Niš