FOUR WAYS OF ADDITION – THE MEANING OF THE WITH-PHRASE
Keywords:with-phrase, secondary predication, participant role, companion, instrument, locatum, depictive
The paper discusses the interpretation of the with-phrase and its cross-linguistic counterparts, in languages in which, within the domain of an eventuality, it expresses four different meanings: comitative, instrument, locatum and depictive. An analysis
is proposed in which the narrow semantic interpretation of the with-phrase is that of a secondary predicate specifying an additive relation along a certain dimension (or set of dimensions) between the argument targeted by it and the referent of the
complement of the preposition with. In some languages, there are slight differences in the marking of these interpretations, i.e. between secondary predicates bound by simple eventualities only, and those without such a restriction. Apart from this
parameter, it is argued that the particular properties that distinguish these four types of interpretation are a matter of pragmatics. Such is the question whether set of dimensions along which the addition takes place includes the dimension of the
participant role, as well as whether the two arguments of addition stand in a (nearly) symmetric, or in a strongly asymmetric relation along the dimension of addition. I showed how a number of patterns in the behaviour of with-phrases are accounted
for, explained and even predicted by the proposed analysis.
Alexiadou, A. and F. Schäfer. 2006. Instrument subjects are agents or causers. WCCFL 25: 40–48.
Arsenijević, B. 2006. Inner aspect and telicity: The decompositional and the quantificational nature of eventualities at the syntax-semantics interface. Utrecht: LOT Publications.
Bach, E. 1986. The algebra of events. Linguistics and Philosophy 9: 5-16.
Baker, M. 1997. Thematic roles and syntactic structure. In Elements of grammar: Handbook in generative syntax, ed. L. Haegeman, 73-137, Dordrecht: Kluwer.
Dowty, D. 2000. The Fallacy of ‘Argument Alternation’, In Polysemy. Ed. Y. Ravin and C. Laecock, 111-128, Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Goldberg, A. E. 1995. Constructions: a Construction Grammar approach to argument structure. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Haspelmath, M. 2001. The European linguistic area: Standard Average European. In Language typology and language universals: An
international handbook, Ed. Haspelmath, M., E. König, W. Oesterreicher and W. Raible, 1492-1510. Berlin: de Gruyter
Hay, J., C. Kennedy and B. Levin. 1999. Scalar structure underlies telicity in ‘degree achievements’. SALT 9: 124-144
Kamp, H. and A. Rossdeutscher. 1994. Remarks on lexical structure and DRS construction. Theoretical Linguistics: 20, 97-164.
Koenig, J., Mauner, G., Bienvenue, B., and Conklin, K. 2008. What with? the anatomy of a (proto)-role. Journal of Semantics, 25(2): 175-220.
Krifka, M. 1992. Thematic relations as links between nominal reference and temporal constitution. In Lexical Matters, Ed. I. A. Sag and A. Szabolcsi, 29–53. Stanford, CA: CSLI Publications.
Lakoff, G. 1968. Instrumental adverbs and the concept of deep structure. Foundations of Language 4: 4–29.
Lakoff, G. and M. Johnson. 1980. Metaphors we live by. Chicago: Chicago UP.
Levin, B. 1993. English Verb Classes and Alternations: A Preliminary Investigation. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Maienborn, C. 2007. On Davidsonian and Kimian states. In Existence: Semantics and Syntax, Ed. I. Comorovski and K. von Heusinger,107-130, Dordrecht: Springer.
Ramchand, G. 2002. First phase syntax. Ms. Oxford University.
Schlesinger, I. M. 1979. Cognitive structures and semantic deep structures: the case of the instrumental. Journal of Linguistics 15: 203-395.
Schlesinger, I. M. 1989. Instruments as Agents: On the Nature of Semantic Relations. Journal of Linguistics, 25: 189-210.
Schlesinger, I. M. 1995. Cognitive case and linguistic space. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Stolz, T., C. Stroh and A. Urdze. 2006. On comitatives and related categories. A typological study with special focus on the languages of
Europe (Empirical Approaches to Language Typology 33). Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.
Authors retain the copyright of their manuscripts, and all Open Access articles are distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided that the original work is properly cited.